Map interpreter: Caucasus area

Map interpreter: Caucasus area

The Caucasus area has been embroiled in a territorial dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh area for many years. Though the flare-up in battle is current, the roots of the violence return to the Nineteen Eighties.

However this map permits us to step again and see the area in its bigger context.

Whereas many of the media has centered on the stress, this map breaks down your entire Caucasus area, offering necessary information and knowledge. That are the nations that comprise this area? What’s the major financial exercise within the space? How is the inhabitants distributed? lets begin.

the fundamentals

The Caucasus area is characterised by far-reaching mountain ranges which have lengthy separated peoples and created distinct ethnic, linguistic and non secular identities over 1000’s of years. Right now, the area spans three major nations: Armenia, AzerbaijanAnd GeorgiaAnd it shares its border with Russia, Turkey and Iran.

Specializing in the principle three, this is a have a look at among the fundamental demographics:

  • Azerbaijan Inhabitants: 10.4 million
  • Armenia inhabitants: 3.0 million
  • Georgia inhabitants: 4.1 million

round the home 20 million, the Caucasus area touches the Caspian Sea within the east and the Black Sea within the west. It’s a area clearly situated between Europe, Asia, and the Center East, however is outlined by most classifications as Central Asian.


Azerbaijan is the biggest nation within the area by way of each land mass and inhabitants. Nagorno-Karabakh The area lies inside the official borders of Azerbaijan, and is inhabited nearly completely by ethnic Armenians.

Most Azeris are Muslims, nonetheless, the nation is taken into account some of the secular Muslim nations on the planet. Essentially the most extensively spoken language with greater than Azerbaijani or Azeri is 92% of the individuals who communicate it. Simply over 1% communicate Russian within the nation and one other 1% communicate Armenian. Maybe unsurprisingly, the same proportion share defines the quantity of ethnic Russians and Armenians in Azerbaijan at 1.5% and 1.3%, respectively.


Like each of its neighbours, Armenia was established in 1991 on the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Not like its neighbors, nonetheless, it’s fully landlocked.

The nation is a majority Christian nation, with an ethnic make-up of approx. 98% Armenian and essentially the most extensively spoken language in keeping with the federal government is Armenian. Inhabitants numbers have fallen because the collapse of the USSR, and have remained comparatively flat in recent times.


Georgia is barely smaller than Azerbaijan in measurement; The nation shares a protracted border with Russia to its north and contains a lengthy shoreline on the Black Sea.

Georgia’s inhabitants progress shares the same story to that of many different former Soviet republics. Whereas the general inhabitants has decreased barely in recent times, the rise in ethnic residents (Georgians) has really elevated. The nation is majority Christian and Georgian is the preferred language.

The place do folks reside within the Caucasus area?

So how are these populations concentrated all through the area? These cartograms, from World Mapper, break it down by nation:


Most individuals reside in and across the capital, Baku, a port metropolis on the Caspian Sea. Nonetheless, many additionally reside inland, near the Armenian and Georgian borders.


caucus area

The inhabitants in Armenia leans closely in the direction of its capital, Yerevan, which has a inhabitants of . Is 1.1 million,


caucus area

The inhabitants distribution of Georgia is barely increased than that of its neighbors, with a choice in the direction of the capital Tbilisi.

Economic system of the Caucasus Area

Now let’s dive into financial exercise within the Caucasus. Partially, the area is oil-rich with entry to sources equivalent to huge oil fields within the Caspian Sea off the coast of Azerbaijan. Actually, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline carries approx. 1 million barrels of oil Day-after-day from oil fields to Turkey.

Transferring again, this is a have a look at the regional GDP:

  • Azerbaijan GDP: $42.6 billion
  • Georgia: $15.9 billion
  • Armenia GDP: $12.7 billion

Azerbaijan is the biggest economic system within the Caucasus area. It’s the most economically developed nation of the three, having seen speedy GDP progress because the transition from the Soviet Republic. At its peak within the early 2000s, nationwide GDP . was rising at an annual charge of 25% -35%, Right now its oil and fuel exports are proving extraordinarily enticing, given the European power disaster brought on by the battle in Ukraine. Fossil fuels make up about 95% of the nation’s export income.

The economies of each Armenia and Georgia are thought-about rising/growing and are depending on quite a few totally different Russian imports. Nonetheless, in keeping with the European Financial institution for Reconstruction and Improvement, each economies are anticipated to develop. 8% this yr.

Georgia’s economic system is recovering from the pandemic because of its booming tourism business, which is basically attracting Russian guests. Moreover, in each Georgia and Armenia, an inflow of Russian companies and tech professionals has boosted economies.

a quick background

Till the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, every republic below the Soviet Union. Moreover, the areas of Dagestan and Chechnya in Russia are additionally situated inside the geographic area of the Caucasus, every distinguishing itself from Russia. Nearly all of each areas are ethnically non-Russian and nonetheless face common violence over their energy struggles with regional giants.

Actually, in keeping with consultants, many tensions within the area may be linked to Russian oppression.

“Russian suppression of nationwide resistance within the Caucasus has inspired radical actions.”
– Dr. James V. Wertsch (Caucasus specialist, College of Washington, St. Louis)

In current historical past, Russia additionally invaded Georgia in the course of the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Beijing Summer season Olympics, sparking battle within the Ossetia and Abkhazia areas. The Russo-Georgian Conflict is taken into account the primary European battle of the twenty first century.

Whereas the historical past of the Caucasus goes again a lot additional – for instance, the Kingdom of Armenia dates again to 331 BC – current occasions have been formed by the aftermath of the Chilly Conflict and the dissolution of the USSR.

Nagorno-Karabakh battle

Tensions over the Nagorno-Karabakh area started within the late Nineteen Eighties and escalated into full-scale battle within the Nineties. Within the early years of the battle, about 30,000 folks died. Since then, ceasefires and violence have been intermittent – with the latest finish of combating in 2020. At the very least 243 folks have died since then.

The battle first started when newly impartial Armenia sought the territory again from Azerbaijan, which was nonetheless a Soviet state on the time, because the inhabitants there was (and nonetheless is) principally Armenian. Though not acknowledged internationally, a separate group has declared a part of Nagorno-Karabakh as an impartial state referred to as the Republic of Kalakh.

Here’s a very transient timeline:

  • 1988-1994: First Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict
  • April 2016: 4 days of violence on the separation line
  • September-November 2020: Conflict resumes until Russia negotiates a ceasefire
  • September 2022: New clashes broke out, leading to a whole lot of deaths

Battle has unfold to the area – Russia is on Armenia’s facet and Turkey is on Azerbaijan’s facet. However new allies might take the stage as evidenced by Nancy Pelosi’s go to to Armenia in mid-September. Right now, the area is split between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russian peacekeepers, however continues to be formally Azerbaijani.

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